A pilonidal sinus is a small depression that occurs at the bottom of the tailbone or coccyx which can become infected and filled with pus. Pilonidal means ‘nest of hairs’ .

sinus tract is a narrow tunnel abnormal in the body that runs between a source of infection in the deepest to the surface of the skin tissues. This channel is discharged pus from time to time on the skin,

is a sinus tract pilonidal conduit containing hairs. It appears under the skin between the buttocks (the natal cleft) a short distance above the rectum (anus). It goes in a vertical direction between the buttocks.

In some rare cases, pilonidal sinus may appear in other parts of the body.

  • What makes a sinus pilonidal?

There are no clear reasons for the incidence of pilonidal sinus, Some theories say that people are born with this minor anomaly between the buttocks. Therefore, it can be inherited. In this condition, the hairs growing on the skin rather than outwards.

Another theory says that pilonidal occurs due to the development of skin dimpling in the skin between the buttocks. Presumably, that develop as a result of local pressure that damages the hair follicles. hair growing in the natal cleft can be pushed into the holes of the skin due to local pressure.

Once the hair fragments become “stuck” on the skin that irritate and cause inflammation. infected skin inflammation and thus quickly becomes a recurrent or persistent infection tends to develop in the affected area. This type of infection causes the breast to develop which often contains broken pieces of hair.

  • Who gets pilonidal?
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Certain factors increase the risk of developing the disease, and include:

  • A job that involves a lot of sitting (a sedentary occupation)
  • overweight (obesity)
  • An earlier injury or persistent irritation in the affected area
  • Having a hairy, deep natal cleft
  • a family history of the disease
  • What are the symptoms of pilonidal sinus?
  1. immediate response (acute) symptoms

The patient notices increased discomfort and swelling for a number of days and the pain can be intense at the time of the presentation. The review is a fluctuating localized swelling in the midline of the natal cleft with overlying cellulite. The area is exquisitely painful to the touch and often simply the act of separating the buttocks to examine the area is intolerable for the patient.

  1. persistent symptoms (chronic)

This is common for patients presenting with chronic and discharge pain, often with a history of up to two years. In examining one, or sometimes multiple breasts can be seen. Wisps of hair or other debris, such as clothing fibers, are often visible source within. localized areas edema, swelling and inflammation may be present mask the underlying breast.

  • What is the treatment of pilonidal sinus?
  1. If you have no symptoms

If you have no symptoms, then you should clean the affected area by shaving hairs or other means of hair removal. Also, keep the area clean with good personal hygiene.

  1. If you have a rapid onset (acute) symptoms

If you have an infection, then you should take antibiotics. (Analgesics such as paracetamol and / or ibuprofen) can be very helpful in relieving pain. You may need to undergo an emergency operation to drill (incise) and drain the pus ball and skin infection (abscess) area.

  1. 3 . If you have persistent symptoms (chronic)
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In general, surgery is recommended .. The options are as follows:

  • wide and scarring resection second intention. This operation involves cutting the breast but also cutting a wide margin of skin surrounding the breasts. The wound is left open to close by natural healing processes (healing by “second intention ‘). This usually requires several weeks of regular dressing changes until completely cured. The advantage of this method is that all inflamed tissue is removed and the risk of the condition of return (recurrence) is low.
  • Excision and primary closure. This means removing the section of skin containing the breast. This is done by cutting a (ellipse) overlaps oval skin on each side of the breast, which is performed within, and stitching together the two sides of the ellipse. After that the wound heals very risk of recurrence or of developing a wound infection after surgery is greater than the above procedure.
  • a plastic surgery technique. sometimes when the breast is repeated or extensive plastic surgery may be advisable to remove the breast and skin remodeling nearby.

Surgeons recommend keeping the area free of growing hair by shaving regularly, or other methods to remove hair. This prevents (recurring) return of the problem.

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