Ebola outbreak this year 2014 is considered as the largest outbreak of Ebola according to the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared an international emergency. Ebola virus already has taken hold of West African countries and so far, the Ebola outbreak has registered a mortality rate of around 80%, which is a fairly large number. Given the shrinking world, the Ebola virus can impress anyone in any country with their presence. The only key to saving yourself and loved ones from infection by the Ebola virus is to raise awareness and take steps to prevent it. Here it is what Ebola virus causes Ebola infection, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention-the facts about the Ebola virus to help keep the distance from this very dangerous infection.
What is Ebola virus disease?
Ebola virus disease that was formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a deadly disease that has a mortality rate of up to 90% and is caused by the Ebola virus. Ebola can be defined as a group of viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever as it leads to bleeding inside and outside of the body infected. To be precise, the Ebola virus causes an infectious and fatal disease that manifests as fever and severe internal bleeding. This disease is spread through contact with infected bodily fluids of Ebola virus. Have rather long incubation period (8 to 21 days), Ebola virus infection can gradually lead to organ failure and, in many cases, death. There is still no cure for infection by the Ebola virus.
on Ebola Virus
Ebola is one of the most deadly viruses that have a mortality rate between 50 and 90%. Ebola virus is native to Africa, where occasional outbreaks have occurred for decades. This virus lives in host animals and found in African monkeys, chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates. Humans can come into contact with this virus through infected animals. Once the Ebola virus is contracted to a human being, then it can spread from one person to another and so on, mainly through contact with body fluids or contaminated needles. So far, no drug has been identified that can treat Ebola virus. If someone is diagnosed with Ebola, supportive care and treatment of complications are given by doctors.
Symptoms of infection by the Ebola virus
The first symptoms of infection with Ebola virus are difficult to detect because they resemble symptoms of many other common illnesses such as influenza, infections, typhoid, cholera, etc. The incubation period of Ebola virus also varies from person to person. It can be anywhere between 2-21 days. The incubation period is the time between exposure to the virus at the time a person feels and sees symptoms. Even after this incubation period, the patient can only see the first symptoms such as fever, headache, body aches and pains, weakness, etc. Over time, the symptoms of Ebola worsens and can include vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, stomach pain, bleeding, etc. Here is the list of symptoms and severe symptoms that show after some time.
Early symptoms of Ebola infection
- Headache, headache, sometimes severe
- joint and muscle pain
- Sore throat
- lack of appetite
severe symptoms of Ebola infection
- nausea and vomiting
- diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, even
- red eyes
- skin rash, which can rise too eruptions
- chest pain
- coughing (patients may cough up blood too)
- stomach pain
- weight loss
- Bleeding eyes
- bruising (patients who are severely affected by the Ebola virus and are close to death can bleed from his ears, nose and rectum)
infection causes Ebola virus
is now clear that the disease is caused by Ebola virus Filoviridae family, commonly known as the Ebola virus. It is actually transmitted from animals to humans and then spread from person to person by direct contact with body fluids of an infected person or animal for example. According to scientists, there are five different types of viruses that can infect humans. World Health Organization (WHO) says the Ebola disease may be caused by close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. In humans, the disease can be caused by Ebola the following methods.
- contact with blood, secretions, organs or other body fluids (feces, urine, saliva, semen) of a person who is infected with the Ebola virus.
- contact with meat from an infected animal. Even the handling of such meat can cause Ebola infection.
- contact with body fluids of a person who died due to the disease Ebola.
- The contact broken skin or mucous membranes of a healthy person contaminated with things like laundry, linen, or used needles.
- Doctors and other health professionals may be infected with Ebola disease through transmission or by contact with infected body fluids.
transmission of Ebola virus
While it may be clear now that the Ebola virus is first transmitted from animals to humans and then a human being infected other beings humans. However, if you want to know how this transfer actually takes place, here are the facts about Ebola transmission of animal and human viruses.
Ebola virus transmission from animals to humans
Some of the examples of how the Ebola virus to humans from an infected animal is transmitted include the following.
- can be transmitted through infected animal blood as when someone butchers or eating an infected animal.
- Scientists and doctors who investigate operating this type of infected animals can also contract the virus.
- Upon contact with the feces or urine of infected animals can also cause transmission of the virus.
transmission of Ebola virus from human to human
should be clear here that until a person develops symptoms of Ebola infection, he or she becomes contagious and can not cause disease in other Ebola. It is only when a person starts showing symptoms becomes a carrier of the Ebola virus.
- Family members who care for sick relatives infected with the Ebola virus can get the disease.
- People who touch the infected body, for example during preparation for extreme unction, can also contract the virus.
- Doctors and health professionals who do not wear surgical masks and gloves etc., can be infected with the virus.
- reuse of needles and syringes used for an infected patient transmits the virus to someone else. unsterilized injection equipment can transmit dangerous Ebola virus.
Diagnosis of disease Ebola virus
The symptoms alone can not be used to diagnose disease Ebola virus since these may resemble symptoms of other diseases such as cholera or malaria. Overall, some blood and tissues are performed to diagnose Ebola. These tests may include the following.
- enzyme-linked (ELISA)
- reaction reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- test blood clotting (for measuring clotting ability of the blood and the time it takes)
- test viral antigen (for the presence of viral antigen)
- function tests liver
there may be some other tests also a doctor deems it appropriate to diagnose whether a person suffers from Ebola infection. If a person is diagnosed with Ebola, which is immediately isolated from the public so that the disease can prevent its spread.
Treatment for Disease Ebola virus
So far, no antiviral drug or drug has been shown to be effective against infection by the Ebola virus. Patients who need treatment are given supportive care and medications for symptom relief. seriously ill patients receiving intensive care support with intravenous fluids or oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes. Some patients recover with proper medical care. hospital treatment includes the following.
- fluids which provides rehydration
- Maintenance of blood pressure
- Provide oxygen when and as necessary
- Replacement of blood loss
- the treatment for other infections that can develop
In some advanced countries like USA, an experimental serum that destroys the infected cells are also given to patients. In general, the goal of treatment is to treat Ebola symptoms and to prevent secondary infections and complications such as pneumonia and liver failure.
The prognosis of the disease Ebola
According to reports from the World Health Organization, up to 80% of those infected with the Ebola virus die. However, the high rate of death is usually due to a drop in blood pressure and organ failure rather than blood loss.
When to seek medical care for Ebola disease?
The only way to survive Ebola disease is to seek immediate medical attention as soon as one comes into contact of the virus or at least when symptoms are observed. Seek medical help in the following situations.
- If you are traveling to a place where it is known to have the disease Ebola virus, as in African countries.
- If contact with a person with Ebola viral infection.
- If you contact with a person suspected of having Ebola disease.
- If you have symptoms of the disease or virus similar to Ebola, immediately seek medical attention.
Virus Ebola Prevention
Currently, there is no drug or vaccine for the disease Ebola virus, although much research is in the development of vaccines and drugs for Ebola disease virus. The current policy for the prevention of Ebola disease focuses on avoiding contact with the virus. The precautions can help prevent Ebola infection are listed below.
- Avoid traveling to areas of known outbreaks of Ebola. Africa is one of those places. If the route to the place can not be avoided, find out about the current outbreaks.
- Maintaining basic hygiene. Wash your hands frequently and properly. Use soap and water to wash hands frequently. When water and soap are not available, use hand sanitizers containing alcohol-based% alcohol at least 60.
- drink clean water from a clean source.
- Cook meat thoroughly and properly. Never eat undercooked meat.
- avoid bushmeat (meat of wild African animals such as food).
- When in some developing countries, avoid contact with wild animals. Do not buy or consume including non-human primates that are sold in local markets.
- Avoid contact with people infected Ebola.
- If you are a caregiver of an infected person, avoid contact with fluids and tissues including blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva of the patient’s body.
- know that Ebola patients are most contagious when in later stages. Take great care to avoid contact with any body fluids.
- Health worker should wear protective clothing such as gloves, masks, gowns and eye protection.
- Always keep infected people away from others.
- Tire used needles properly and sterilize other instruments.
- Do not try to prepare for the rites of people who died due to Ebola. Let teams specially organized and trained to handle burials and other related death rituals procedures. They must use appropriate safety equipment while doing so.
- If any symptoms that resemble those of Ebola is observed, seek medical attention.
Ebola Virus Facts
Here are some related Ebola virus and the disease caused by it to satisfy the curiosity of those who have facts.
- Ebola was first identified in Africa in 1976.
- There are 5 subspecies of Ebola virus. Are- Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), ebolavirus Tai Forest (TAFV) and Ebola Reston (RESTV)
- The first outbreaks of human Ebola were observed in 1976 one in northern Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and the other in southern Sudan (now South Sudan).
- Ebola virus was named Ebola river located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) since the disease was first observed near here in 1976
- While the disease Ebola is extremely infectious, it is not very contagious. Laboratory experiments suggest that even a single virus may be enough to lead to a fatal infection.
- This disease is not highly contagious because it is not airborne. The virus is not transmitted again through the air.
- Humans can contract the disease Ebola only when in contact with body fluids of an infected person or contamination from infected people. They can also get Ebola disease if they come into contact with infected animals.
- The exact host of Ebola virus is not yet known. However, researchers believe that fruit bats are the natural hosts probable Ebola virus.
- human Ebola outbreaks have been confirmed in these countries- Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Gabon, South Sudan, Ivory Coast, Uganda, Republic of Congo (Republic of China), Guinea and Liberia.
- Ebola outbreaks leading to over 100 deaths or special cases have been reported in the years 1976, 1989, 1990, 1995, 2000-01, 2001-02, December 2002-April 2003 2007 , November 2008, and the recent 2014.
- World Health Organization has confirmed or suspected cases of Ebola in the following countries as of August 16, 2014
- Guinea – 543 cases, 394 deaths
- Liberia – 834 cases, 466 deaths
- Nigeria – 15 cases, 4 deaths
- Sierra Leone – 848 cases and 365 deaths
- Ebola virus multiplies at a rapid pace until it reaches a stage in which about 100 million viral particles can be found in just one drop of blood.
- There is no vaccine available for Ebola virus. Zmapp the experimental drug shows promising results but is still in the evaluation stage, where their safety and effectiveness must be evaluated.
- The proteins on the outer surface of Ebola virus destroys the immune system of the infected person. In response to the virus, molecules released by immune cells are used by the virus to devastate the vascular system and trigger the formation of blood clots.
- Due to the absence of any effective treatment and vaccine awareness of the risk factors associated with disease Ebola virus and preventive measures are the only way to reduce human infection and deaths ebola.
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