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Common lumps and bumps on and under the skin: what are they?

A dermoscope helps the doctor to see if the moon has hidden signs of melanoma, or if it is nothing to worry about. UQ

As we age, the soft skin of childhood gives way to all kinds of mysterious lumps and bumps. In an environment of high UV radiation and Australia, we must be very attentive to the possibility of skin cancer. But most of the lumps will be benign skin develop. Here are some of the most common, and how to tell them apart.

Moles

Moles or nevi are lesions of the most common skin. They consist of a set of melanocytes, pigment-producing cells of the skin. They can be brown, black, pink, the same color as the surrounding, or even blue skin if melanocytes are grouped into the dermal deep layer (interior) of the skin. Most moles are flat, but can also be raised.

While some people have moles at birth, usually begin to appear during childhood and developed through age 40, when they begin to slowly disappear again. The number of moles you have is controlled in part by genetics, but is also influenced by their environment. Lots of sun exposure leads to more moles, and so can be used certain drugs, such as those that suppress the immune system.

Moles themselves are harmless, but about 25% of melanomas arise in an existing mole. Many others are like moles in their early stages.

is a good idea for any new or changing mole checked by a doctor, who usually met with a dermatoscope, a portable microscope using polarized light to see just below the surface will examine the skin. If the lesion is asymmetrical, multi-colored or have other signs of melanoma, the doctor will remove it for further analysis.

A dermoscope helps the doctor see signs of melanoma if the mole is hidden, or if it is nothing to worry about. UQ

Having many moles is the strongest predictor of a high risk of melanoma, so that people with many moles are often advised to have a regular check of the skin with a dermatologist. For the rest of us, self-exams are recommended.

seborrheic keratosis

seborrheic keratosis, sometimes inelegantly called senile warts or barnacles, are another common benign skin lesion. These are considered as part of the normal aging process of the skin.

These growths such as warts may begin to appear in their 30s and 40s. At the age of 60 about 90% of people will have at least one seborrheic keratosis. They can erupt suddenly after a sunburn or a bout of dermatitis, or appear slowly for no apparent reason.

If many seborrheic keratosis itchy rash suddenly, sometimes it is a sign of internal cancer. Very rarely, carcinomas of basal or squamous cell arise within a preexisting seborrheic keratosis. Seborrheic keratosis themselves are harmless, but can be prolific – some people have hundreds -. And increase in number as the years go

Some people develop a lot of seborrheic keratoses, both large and small.

seborrheic keratosis can be flat or raised, and often seem as if they had been stuck on the skin instead of growing out of it. Its color ranges from pale yellow to black. They may be waxy or flaky warty, and anywhere between 1 mm and several centimeters in diameter.

Those who are dark and large may be alarming, but when viewed with dermoscope usually have a characteristic brain or similar type BANKSIA appearance and are easy to distinguish from skin cancers. If in doubt, your doctor will take a biopsy to investigate further, since a melanoma can sometimes simulate a seborrheic keratosis.

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seborrheic keratosis can be annoying if snagging on clothing or in the way of your razor, and some people find unpleasant. In these cases they can be removed by freezing, cutting, burning, laser surgery, chemical peels or excision with scalpel or scissors.

This injury seems alarming at first glance, but under a dermoscope is obvious by the appearance BANKSIA-like which is a benign seborrheic keratosis.

Cysts

A cyst is a round lesion fact a capsule filled with keratin (the structural material forming the outer layer of the skin), sebum (skin oil ), fluid or material as pus. Firm or soft to the touch, which are entirely benign. At least 20% of adults have some kind of a cyst in his life.

Sometimes cysts form when the injured skin into a pocket to form skin cells and accumulate maturing and dying inside. Other cysts form when the epidermal cells, normally found on the surface of the skin, in the deep dermis proliferate and fill in a similar manner.

Some cysts are formed when a gland hair follicle, sweat ducts or mucosa is blocked and the fluid builds up behind the blockage. Ganglion cysts are formed when liquid seeps nearby joints in a capsule under the skin. Several genes may make you more susceptible to the formation of cysts of various kinds.

An inflamed epidermal inclusion cyst.

The material within a cyst can range from aqueous soft cheese-like, and can be odorless or smelly. A central pore can be visible in the cyst, but beware of trying to blow up and drain the cyst itself -. That can become infected if not properly clean

Usually, the only way to get rid of a cyst is surgically removed permanently encapsulating your wall. If only liquid discharge is just filled again.

Fortunately, a dermatologist can usually remove a cyst in a short with a little local anesthetic procedure. This is demonstrated by the bizarrely popular videos of Dr. Popper shin (which, incidentally, may not want to look at lunch).

hemangiomas

Hemangiomas are other benign skin lesion usually painless, formed from an overgrowth of blood vessels in the skin. Usually they are firm lumps and can present as capillary hemangiomas, venous lakes or spider veins. Depending on how deep in the skin that are, that can be deep red, purple or blue.

The author’s collection of capillary hemangiomas.

Capillary hemangiomas are round or oval, well defined, bright red skin, usually less than half a centimeter wide. If you are on the lip, they called venous lakes.

spider angioma also have a small red lump in the middle, but with red lines (capillaries) twisted outwards like the legs of a spider. They usually appear on the face and upper body.

If suddenly appear many spider veins can be a sign of high estrogen or poor liver function, but generally isolated spider veins are not a concern.

Rarely, hemangiomas mimic amelanotic (non-pigmented) Nodular melanomas. These should be removed for further analysis.

The rest do not require treatment except for cosmetic reasons. In this case, the Angioma be frozen with liquid nitrogen, burning with electrosurgery, or laser-treated.

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Dermatofibromas

Dermatofibromas are small firm nodules, which are sometimes itchy and could be mistaken for an insect bite. In fact, most likely also they evolve from some types of insect bites.

usually are 1 cm or less in width, appear to be on the surface layer of the skin and, if it pinches one, a dimple appear in it. In the pale skin, ranging from pink to light and dark brown skin dark brown to black, and may be paler in the middle.

dermatofibroma Glen Wimberley

are caused by a benign cell proliferation of fibroblasts (the main cells of connective tissue), perhaps in response to a slight injury skin, but it is unclear why this happens. The immune system seems to keep them under control, as several new Dermatofibromas may occur when the immune system of a person is suppressed.

Like seborrheic, Dermatofibromas keratoses are harmless, but can be annoying. In this case, they are removed by simple surgical excision. If they are ulcerated, have recently become or are unusually large color, your doctor will remove them to prove they are not melanomas or basal cell carcinomas.

Lipoma

The lipomas are not, strictly speaking, a skin lesion at all. They often appear similar to cysts, lipomas are actually slow growing tumors of fat cells surrounded by a fibrous capsule. They do not actually grow on the skin, but below the subcutaneous layer.

Two large lipomas on the back.

Like cysts, which are very common and not evil. Many people with lipomas have a family history of lipomas, so there is probably a genetic cause. Some lipomas may arise after blunt trauma to the site, but the mechanism that causes not well understood.

The egg or lipoma dome-shaped rubber usually feels and moves easily under the skin. This makes them easy to diagnose clinically, although doctors sometimes use a deep skin biopsy to be sure.

Most lipomas are not painful to the touch, but can grow as large as 10 cm wide and restrict movement of muscles or joints nearby. If that is the case, or bothered by their appearance, lipoma can be treated by surgery to remove the entire tumor, liposuction to drain the interior, or the technique of simple compression, where a doctor makes a small incision in the skin and squeezes the fat tissue.

When it checked

Any lump, bump or skin lesion is worth showing a doctor if you are worried, but there are some red flags that should prompt you to make the appointment more sooner rather than later.

A lunar newly appeared or an existing mole that begins to grow or change the color should be revised. If the injury bleed very easily – with one touch – get it looked at as soon as possible. painful lumps are another sign that all is not well.

Authors:

1 . H Peter Soyer, professor of dermatology at the University of Queensland

2. Katie Lee, study coordinator and research assistant at the University of Queensland

Courtesy: The Conversation

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